John B. Hood

John B. Hood


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John Bell Hood var en amerikansk examen från West Point, Hood gick med i konfederationen 1861 och fick ett rykte som en begåvad fältkommandant under halvönskampanjen och andra slaget vid Bull Run 1862. Hood fungerade som divisionschef vid striderna av Antietam och Fredericksburg, och förlorade ett ben och användningen av en av hans armar efter att ha blivit svårt sårad vid striderna i Gettysburg och Chickamauga 1863. Befordrades till full general 1864, tjänstgjorde Hood i oberoende kommando över Tennessees armé under Atlanta -kampanjen. Hans aggressiva taktik visade sig till slut meningslös mot William T. Shermans större unionskrafter, och Hood led senare en rad bittra nederlag under Franklin-Nashville-kampanjen i slutet av 1864. Efter inbördeskriget arbetade Hood som bomullsmäklare och försäkringsagent i Louisiana. Han dog 1879 48 år gammal.

John Bell Hood: Early Life and Military Service

John Bell Hood, son till en läkare, föddes i Owingsville, Kentucky den 1 juni 1831. 1849 fick Hood en tid till United States Military Academy på West Point, där han studerade tillsammans med blivande inbördeskrigsgeneralerna James B. McPherson och Philip H. Sheridan. Hood kämpade för att möta de strikta kraven i livet på West Point och slutade 44: e av 52 kadetter vid examen 1853.

Utnämnd till en andra löjtnant i det fjärde amerikanska infanteriet, tilldelades Hood garnisonplikt vid Fort Jones i norra Kalifornien. 1855 säkrade han en överföring till USA: s andra kavalleri i Jefferson Banks, Missouri, där han tjänstgjorde under kommande konfedererade generaler Albert Sidney Johnston och Robert E. Lee. Enheten flyttades till Texas senare samma år, och Hood tillbringade de kommande fem åren med att patrullera gränsen. År 1857 skadades han i handen av en pil under strider med indianer, och citerades senare för tapperhet och befordrades till första löjtnant. Hood njöt av spänningen i fältet, och 1860 tackade han nej till ett prestigefyllt möte för att fungera som kavallerinstruktör på West Point för att stanna kvar vid gränsen.

John Bell Hood: Inbördeskrig

Hood var sympatisk för den södra saken och uppgav ofta att han skulle avgå från den amerikanska armén om hans hemstat Kentucky skulle gå med i konfederationen. Även om Kentucky inte skilde sig, lämnade Hood in sin avgång i april 1861 och utsågs till en första löjtnant för kavalleri i den konfedererade armén. Han tillbringade de första dagarna av kriget med att träna kavalleri i Yorktown, Virginia, innan han befordrades till överste och placerades i kommando över ett regemente från Texas. Denna enhet utvidgades snart till brigadstyrka, och i mars 1862 befordrades Hood till brigadgeneral med kommando över det som blev känt som "Texas Brigade."

Hood såg sina första betydande strider i maj 1862 under halvönskampanjen, där hans brigad engagerade en fackstyrka under slaget vid Elthams landning. Han skulle befästa sitt rykte som en orädd kämpe en månad senare, när han personligen ledde en anklagelse som överträffade unionens linjer under slaget vid Gaines Mill. Hans mod under eld och hans rykte som ledare gav honom snart kommandot över en division i general James Longstreet. Hoods stjärna fortsatte att stiga under det andra slaget vid Bull Run i augusti 1862, när hans division stod i spetsen för en massiv flankerande manöver som ledde unionsstyrkor under kommando av general John Pope. Mindre än en månad senare led Hoods division nästan 50 procent av dödsofferna vid slaget vid Antietam, där hans män förstärkte trupper under kommando av general Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson och avtrubbade ett unionsangrepp. Denna föreställning gav Hood fortsatt beröm, och i oktober 1862 blev 31-åringen den yngsta generalmajoren i Lees armé i norra Virginia.

Hood deltog i den konfedererade segern i slaget vid Fredericksburg i december 1862 och tjänstgjorde sedan under Longstreet i belägringen av Suffolk i början av 1863. Hans division skulle senare spela en betydande roll i slaget vid Gettysburg i juli 1863. Även om han inte höll med om hans order genomförde Hood ett ambitiöst angrepp mot unionens ställning på Little Round Top. Hans män blev avvisade av fackliga styrkor, i synnerhet regementet som leddes av överste Joshua Chamberlain. Bland de skadade fanns Hood, som skadades allvarligt i vänster arm av fragment från ett artilleri -skal. Han skulle förlora användningen av lemmen för resten av sitt liv.

John Bell Hood: Western Theatre och Atlanta -kampanjen

Efter att ha tillbringat två månader med att rekonstruera i Richmond, anslöt sig Hood igen till Longstreet's corps, som hade överförts till Western Theatre för att hjälpa general Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee. Bara dagar efter att han återförenat sin gamla enhet i september 1863 ledde Hood en laddning under slaget vid Chickamauga. Medan överfallet lyckades skadades Hood i låret av en muskettboll och fick sin andra stora skada på mindre än tre månader. Sårets svårighetsgrad krävde att hans högra ben amputerades, men Hood överlevde mot extrema odds och befordrades till generallöjtnant för hans tapperhet.

Hood återvände till fältet våren 1864 trots hans skador, vilket krävde att han bar ett konstgjort ben och åkte fastspänd på sin häst. Han antog ett kårkommando i general Joseph E. Johnstons armé i Tennessee, som sedan försökte bromsa general William T. Shermans marsch mot Atlanta. Den aggressiva Hood var snabb att kritisera Johnston, vars strategi för strategiskt tillbakadragande hade gjort det möjligt för Sherman att stänga in staden. Hood var rasande över sin befälhavares försiktiga taktik och skrev en serie brev till Richmond där han krävde att Johnston skulle bli lättad. Hans kampanj lyckades och i juli 1864 ersatte Hood Johnston som befälhavare för Army of Tennessee.

Hood blev tillfälligt befordrad till full general och lanserade omedelbart en rad djärva offensiven mot Shermans styrkor vid Battles of Peachtree Creek, Atlanta, Ezra Church och Jonesborough, som alla misslyckades. Hood övergav Atlanta till unionskontrollen i september 1864, efter att ha lidit över 50 procent skadade i sin en gång 65 000-starka styrka. Hood flyttade sedan resterna av sin armé till nordväst i hopp om att dra Sherman till Tennessee. Planen visade sig vara misslyckad, eftersom Sherman bara skickade general George H. Thomas för att ta kontroll över unionens styrkor i Tennessee medan han stannade kvar i Georgien för att genomföra sin marsch till havet.

Under den efterföljande Franklin-Nashville-kampanjen lyckades Hood initialt driva tillbaka general John M. Schofields armé i Ohio, men han led ett förödande nederlag i slaget vid Franklin i slutet av november 1864. I det som ofta kallas " Pickett's Charge of the West, ”Hood fattade det fräcka beslutet att skicka nästan 20 000 män i en offensiv mot en befäst unionsposition. Attacken resulterade i svindlande offer, och Schofield lyckades sedan koppla upp sig med general George H. Thomas i Nashville. Trots hans sämre antal och misshandlade armé försökte Hood belägra staden. Thomas skulle så småningom inleda ett stort angrepp på Hood under slaget vid Nashville i mitten av december 1864, förlamande Hoods styrkor och tillfoga över 6000 offer. Efter att ha blivit avgörande besegrad ersattes Hood som befälhavare för Tennessee -armén i januari 1865. Han skickades senare för att rapportera om militära angelägenheter i Mississippi, där han kapitulerade för unionens styrkor i maj 1865.

John Bell Hood: Later Life

Hood tillbringade sina senare år i New Orleans som bomullshandlare och president för ett livförsäkringsbolag. År 1868 gifte han sig med en kvinna i Louisiana vid namn Anna Marie Hennen, med vilken han så småningom skulle få 11 barn, inklusive tre tvillingar. Hoods fru och ett av hans barn dog under en gula feberepidemin 1879, och han gav efter för sjukdomen strax därefter vid 48 års ålder. Medan Hoods återstående 10 barn ursprungligen lämnades föräldralösa fick de hjälp av inkomster från hans postume memoarer och adopterades så småningom av familjer över hela söder och i New York.


John B. Hood

(huvudmarkör) John B. Hood
Generalmajor, C.S.A.,
Sårad
20 september 1863. (vägmarkering) Till plats där general Hood
Var sårad.

Uppfördes 1890 av Chickamauga och Chattanooga National Military Park Commission. (Markörnummer MT-448.)

Ämnen. Denna historiska markör är listad i denna ämneslista: War, US Civil. Ett viktigt historiskt datum för denna post är den 20 september 1863.

Plats. 34 & deg 55.195 ′ N, 85 & deg 15.935 ′ W. Marker ligger i Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, i Walker County. Markör kan nås från Vittetoe Chickamauga Road norr om Dyer Road, till vänster när du reser norrut. Från vägspåret följer du skylten "Till platsen där general Hood sårades.". Peka för karta. Marker finns i det här postkontorområdet: Chickamauga GA 30707, USA. Tryck för vägbeskrivning.

Andra markörer i närheten. Minst 8 andra markörer finns inom gångavstånd från denna markör. The Wounding of Hood Site (inom ropavstånd från denna markör) Longstreet's Corps (inom roparavstånd från denna markör) Hood's Headquarters Shell Monument (cirka 300 fot bort, mätt i en direkt linje) Bledsoe's C.S.A. Missouri Battery (cirka 300 meter bort) Croxton's Brigade. (cirka 400 fot bort) Kershaw's Brigade (cirka 400 meter bort) Van Derveer's Brigade

(cirka 600 fot bort) Brannans division (cirka 700 fot bort). Tryck för en lista och karta över alla markörer i Fort Oglethorpe.

Se också. . .
1. John Bell Hood - Civil War Trust. (Inskickat den 24 september 2015 av Brandon Fletcher från Chattanooga, Tennessee.)
2. Chickamauga och Chattanooga National Military Park. National Park Service (Inlämnad den 25 september 2015.)


Hood ’s Texas Brigade: Elite Confederate Shock Troops

På ytan tycktes Texas Brigade inte vara avsedd för storhet i det amerikanska inbördeskriget. Texas var en av de minst befolkade staterna i konfederationen, den mest avlägsna från stora strider, och dess soldater var otroligt underutrustade.

Männen från Texas trotsade dock oddsen och spelade en betydande roll i nästan varje strid i krigets östra teater. Trots deras ödmjuka början blev de en av de mest elitära och högt ansedda enheterna i hela förbundet.

Texas Brigade, vintern 1861–62.

Texanerna anländer

När Texas Brigade först bildades verkade den vara avsedd att misslyckas. Männen dök upp med de vapen de hade hemma, vilket ledde till en enhet med svängande musketer från 1830 -talet, hagelgevär, jaktgevär och pistoler. Några av dem hade inte alls vapen.

Konfederationen höll emellertid Texans högt betyg. Texaner hade blivit legendariska för sitt självständighetskrig mot Mexiko (som blev det mexikansk-amerikanska kriget) och väl publicerade strider som den vid Alamo.

En kniv som påstås ha använts av Davy Crockett under slaget vid Alamo. Foto: Brian Reading CC BY-SA 3.0

Konfederationen var också hoppfull om att slavägande västerländska territorier som New Mexico Territory skulle följa efter (och en del av New Mexico avskedade sig och blev Confederate Territory of Arizona). Som ett resultat såg den konfedererade regeringen till att texanerna fick modernare utrustning, särskilt geväret Enfield Pattern 1853.

1853 Enfield rifle-musket

Precis som många enheter leddes Texas Brigade först av mannen som organiserade den, i detta fall överste Louis T. Wigfall. Wigfall avgick dock kommandot i början av 1862, och general John Bell Hood tog kommandot.

Hood ’s Brigade skulle först se handling vid slaget vid Eltham ’s Landing. Även om Eltham ’s Landing bara var ett mindre engagemang under halvönskampanjen, var det där som texanerna började bygga sin legend.

Louis Trezevant Wigfall

Att bygga en legend

Vid Eltham ’s Landing kämpade Hood ’s män sida vid sida med den också legendariska Hampton ’s Legion. General Joseph E. Johnston, ansvarig för förbundsstyrkorna under striden, beordrade texanerna att försiktigt känna fienden och falla tillbaka.

Efter slaget sägs en förvirrad Longstreet ha frågat “Vad hade dina texaner gjort, sir, om jag hade beordrat dem att ladda och driva tillbaka fienden? ” som Hood svarade, “ Jag antar, general, de skulle ha drivit dem in i floden och försökt simma ut och fånga kanonbåtarna. ”

Joseph E. Johnston

Hood ledde sina män direkt i strid och dödades nästan som ett resultat. Vid ett tillfälle beordrade han sina män att ta sig fram med olastade vapen, eftersom han fruktade att de av misstag skulle skjuta på tillbakadragande konfedererade skärmskyttar.

Istället snubblade de på en unionslinje. En facklig korporal lyfte upp sitt vapen för att skjuta direkt mot Hood, men en av texanerna hade inte följt order och höll pistolen laddad. Den mannen dödade unionskorporalen innan han kunde avfyra.

Karta över Eltham ’s Landing Battlefield kärna och studieområden av American Battlefield Protection Program.

Texanerna såg nästa betydande handling under Seven Days Battles, särskilt vid Gaines ’ Mill. När solen gick ner på slagfältet tycktes unionens linjer ha hållit emot konfedererade överfall. General Longstreet ville dock pröva ytterligare en attack innan dagen var över.

Hood ledde sin brigad i en snabb och aggressiv attack som slog igenom unionens centrum och kastade hela den norra armén i oordning. USA: s femte kavalleri försökte göra en motattack för att förhindra att Yankee-linjerna kollapsade totalt, men texanerna höll fasta och fångade många av kavalleristerna och orsakade stora skador.

Även om segern på Gains ’ Mill kostade ett högt pris för Texas Brigade - cirka 25% av dem var offer - var deras legend cementerad.

“Battle of Gaines Mill, Valley of the Chickahominy, Virginia, 27 juni 1862. ” Records of the Chief Signal Officer, 1860 – 1985.

I krigets tjocka

Under större delen av kriget skulle Hood ’s Texas Brigade fortsätta att slåss under Robert E. Lee i Army of Northern Virginia, och i synnerhet med Longstreet ’s First Corps. I slutet av juli 1862 fick Hood kommandot över en hel division, inklusive Texas Brigade.

Brigaden såg därefter betydande åtgärder vid Second Manassas, där de ledde Longstreet ’s avgörande attack mot Pope ’s vänstra flank på den sista dagen i striden. De överträffade både 5: e och 10: e Zouaves i New York och orsakade cirka 300 offer för 500: e femte New York Zouaves under tio minuter.

En grupp män står nära Manassas Railroad Junction järnvägsspår 1862 med ett tåg i bakgrunden.Foto: AlbertHerring CC BY 2.0

Slutligen fångade de ett batteri och flera viktiga positioner under striden. Texas Brigaden led emellertid nästan 700 dödsoffer under de tre dagarna av strid, vilket gjorde att de var mycket utarmade för den ännu större striden som skulle komma.

Slaget vid Sharpsburg (Antietam) var krigets blodigaste enkeldagsslag. General Thomas “Stonewall ” Jackson ’s kår var engagerad i några av de hårdaste striderna, centrerade kring ett ökänt majsfält som bytte ägare över ett halvt dussin gånger under striden.

Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall ” Jackson

Hood ’s män engagerade sig i striden runt 07:00 och fyllde ett avgörande gap i Jackson ’s linje och tvingade unionens trupper tillbaka över majsfältet. Texanerna bar branten av unionens motattacker, som stod inför den legendariska järnbrigaden och två kårer. De led otroliga skador under processen.

I slutet av dagen frågade Robert E. Lee Hood var hans män befann sig, vilket han ökänt svarade “död på fältet. ” Texas Brigade hade lidit cirka 60% offer.

Obearbetat reservartilleri på fälten nära McClellans högkvarter vid Phillip Pry House, troligen tagit två dagar efter slaget. Tittar österut mot Keedysville Pike. Antietam Battlefield

En av Brigades stoltaste stunder kom under slaget vid Gettysburg när Hood och hans män valdes att ta den svåra terrängen vid Devil ’s Den. Hood själv skadades tidigt i överfallet när ett skal exploderade nära honom och skadade hans vänstra arm.

Även om Hood aldrig skulle återfå sin arm, tog hans män Devil ’s Den efter intensiva strider och allvarliga offer. Texans mötte dock äntligen sin match när de tvingades tillbaka efter att ha attackerat Little Round Top.

Little Round Top, västra sluttningen, fotograferad av Timothy H. O ’Sullivan, 1863.

Sent krig och arv

Efter att Hood återhämtat sig förflyttades han och hans brigad till väst, där de kämpade vid Chickamauga. Texanerna spelade återigen en avgörande roll genom att leda Longstreet ’s angrepp mot en lucka i unionslinjen.

Även om detta var en vändpunkt i striden som ledde till den konfedererade segern, fick Hood ytterligare en allvarlig skada och måste få sitt högra ben amputerat. Även om Hood skulle återvända till striden, var det sista gången han direkt ledde brigaden. De behöll dock smeknamnet “Hood ’s Brigade. ”

Löjtnant John B. Hood

Brigaden deltog i belägringarna i Chattanooga och Knoxville, men återvände till Virginia i februari 1864. Under kommando av general John Gregg anlände Texas Brigade precis i tid för att förhindra att de konfedererade styrkorna bryter mot vildmarken.

Robert E. Lee var så glad att se deras ankomst att han red fram till dem och började personligen leda deras framsteg. Texaner invände dock och tog tag i tyglarna till sin häst och berättade att risken var för stor. Lee ångrade sig så småningom på Longstreet ’s befallning.

Utsikt över artilleriparken fångad i slaget vid Chattanooga

Vid kapitulationen vid Appomattox hade Texas Brigade blivit en av de mest legendariska enheterna i förbundsarmén. Av 4 400 män återstod bara cirka 600 för att kapitulera med Robert E. Lee.

Med rätta ihågkomna vid sidan av Stonewall Brigade och Hampton ’s Legion, bildade Texas Brigade en av elitenheterna i Confederate Army och spelade avgörande roller i många stora strider.

Inklusive några strider där de hölls i reserv, deltog de i nästan alla konflikter i östra teatern. För en brigad som startade kriget utan att ens ha tillräckligt med vapen för alla sina män, presterade texanerna bättre än de hade någon anledning till.


Innehåll

Hood följde upp sitt nederlag i Atlanta -kampanjen genom att flytta nordväst för att störa försörjningslinjerna för generalmajor William T. Sherman från Chattanooga, i hopp om att utmana Sherman till en strid som kan utkämpas till Hoods fördel. Efter en kort tids förföljelse bestämde sig Sherman för att koppla ur och istället genomföra sin marsch till havet och lämna frågan om Hoods armé och försvaret av Tennessee åt Thomas. Hood utarbetade en plan för att marschera in i Tennessee och besegra Thomas styrka medan den var geografiskt uppdelad. Han förföljde generalmajor John M. Schofields armé från Pulaski till Columbia och försökte sedan fånga upp och förstöra den på Spring Hill. På grund av en rad konfedererade kommandofelkommunikationer i slaget vid Spring Hill (29 november 1864) kunde Schofield dra sig ur Columbia och glida förbi Hoods armé vid Spring Hill relativt oskadad. [4]

Rasande över hans misslyckande på Spring Hill, förföljde Hood Schofield i norr och mötte unionen vid Franklin bakom starka befästningar. I slaget vid Franklin den 30 november beordrade Hood nästan 31 000 av hans män att attackera unionens verk innan Schofield kunde dra sig tillbaka över Harpeth River och fly till Nashville. Fackföreningssoldaterna avvisade flera överfall och tillfogade över 6000 offer för de konfedererade, som inkluderade ett stort antal viktiga förbundsgeneraler, som gjorde stora skador på ledningen för Tennessee -armén. [5]

Schofield drog sig tillbaka från Franklin under natten och marscherade in i försvarsverken i Nashville den 1 december och kom där under kommando av Thomas, som nu hade en sammanlagd styrka på cirka 55 000 man. [2] I stort sett var hans trupper veteraner, IV -kåren under brig. General Thomas J. Wood och Schofields XXIII Corps efter att ha kämpat i Atlanta -kampanjen och generalmajor Andrew J. Smiths "Detachment of the Army of the Tennessee" (en del av den nyligen avvecklade XVI Corps hade designats om med detta ovanliga namn den 6 december) efter att ha kämpat på Vicksburg, i Red River -kampanjen, vid Tupelo mot SD Lee och Nathan Bedford Forrest, och i Missouri mot Sterling Price. Medan Wilsons kavalleri hade stridserfarenhet, hade det mesta varit av fel slag av Nathan Bedford Forrest, John Hunt Morgan eller Joe Wheeler. Endast generalmajor James B. Steedmans division saknade erfarenhet. Den bestod av garnisontrupper och järnvägsvakter från Tennessee och Georgia och inkluderade åtta regementen av USA: s färgade trupper.

Fackliga styrkor hade byggt defensiva arbeten runt Nashville sedan staden ockuperades i februari 1862. [6] År 1864 skyddade en 7 mil lång halvcirkelformad unionens försvarslinje på södra och västra sidan av staden Nashville från attacker från de riktningarna. Linjen var full av fort, den största var Fort Negley. Grävlinjen förlängdes i väster efter den 1 december. [7] Cumberland River bildade en naturlig defensiv barriär på norra och östra sidan av staden. Smiths trupper hade anlänt med floden den 30 november, och deras transporter hade eskorterats av en kraftfull flotta av tinclad och järnklädda kanonbåtar. Således var flodspärren väl försvarad.

Från öst till väst bemannades försvarslinjen av Steedmans division, XXIII Corps, IV Corps och Smiths XVI Corps Detachment. [8] Med tanke på att unionens armé bestod av trupper från Army of the Cumberland, Army of Ohio, Tennessee Army, District of Etowah och Post of Nashville, hade styrkan i Nashville ingen officiellt namn. [9]

Hoods armé i Tennessee anlände söder om staden den 2 december och intog positioner mot unionens styrkor inom staden. Eftersom han inte var tillräckligt stark för att attackera unionens befästningar valde Hood defensiven. Istället för att upprepa sin fruktlösa frontattack mot Franklin förankrade han sig och väntade i hopp om att Thomas skulle attackera honom. Sedan, efter att Thomas hade krossat sin armé mot de konfedererade förankringarna, kunde Hood motattackera och ta Nashville. [10]

Konfedererade linjen med cirka fyra mil befästningar vetter mot den sydvästra delen av unionslinjen (den del som upptas av Steedman och Schofield). Från höger till vänster var kåren av generalmajor Benjamin F. Cheatham, generallöjtnant Stephen D. Lee och generallöjtnant Alexander P. Stewart. Kavalleri under kommando av brig. General James R. Chalmers åkte till sydväst om staden. [11] Konfederationens vänstra flank var säkrad av fem små fristående redoubts, var och en med två till fyra kanoner med garnisoner på cirka 150 man vardera. [12]

Hood gjorde ett allvarligt strategiskt fel innan slaget. Den 2 december skickade han de tre brigaderna i William B. Bates division av Cheatham's Corps för att attackera Nashville & amp; Chattanooga Railroad mellan Nashville och Murfreesboro samt unionens garnison i den senare staden. [13] Tre dagar senare skickade han ytterligare två infanteribrigader och två divisioner kavalleri, alla under Forrests kommando, för att förstärka Bate. [14] Hood trodde att denna avledning skulle dra Thomas ur Nashville -befästningarna, så att Hood antingen kunde besegra Thomas i detalj eller att beslagta Nashville med en kupp de main när dess garnison var uttömd. [15] Medan järnvägen mellan Nashville och Murfreesboro var trasig på ett antal ställen körde Murfreesboro -garnisonen av de konfedererade i det tredje slaget vid Murfreesboro (även kallat slaget vid cedrarna) den 7 december. [16] Dessutom körde Thomas vidare lurades inte av denna avledning och stannade kvar i sina befästningar tills han var redo att attackera på sina egna villkor. Bates division och en av de två anknutna infanteribrigaderna återvände till Nashville, men Hood hade allvarligt minskat hans redan många soldater, och han hade också berövat sin armé dess starkaste och mest rörliga enhet, Forrest och hans kavalleri. [17]


General John B. Hood Huvudkontor

General Hood, som befälde avdelningen i Tennessee och Georgia för den konfedererade armén, gjorde sitt huvudkontor i detta hus den 19 oktober 1864 på sin reträtt från Atlanta till Tennessee via Gadsden. Hans armé utgjorde cirka 40 000 trupper.

Uppförd av Cherokee County Historical Society.

Ämnen. Denna historiska markör är listad i dessa ämneslistor: Notable Places & bull War, US Civil. Ett viktigt historiskt datum för denna post är 19 oktober 1864.

Plats. 34 & deg 16.551 ′ N, 85 & deg 40.488 ′ W. Marker ligger i Cedar Bluff, Alabama, i Cherokee County. Marker är i korsningen av Alabama Route 273 och County Route 275, till höger när du reser söderut på State Route 273. Ligger på husets främre gård. Peka för karta. Marker finns i det här postkontorområdet: Cedar Bluff AL 35959, USA. Tryck för vägbeskrivning.

Andra markörer i närheten. Minst 8 andra markörer är inom 6 miles från denna markör, mätt i luftlinje. Round Mountain Iron Furnace (ca. 7,1 miles away) Tennessee, Alabama & Georgia Railway (ca. 7,7 miles away) Cornwall Furnace (ca. 5,3 miles away) David Hartline (ca. 5,3 miles away) History of Taff, Alabama (ca. 5.3 miles away) en annan markör som också heter Cornwall Furnace (ca. 8.3 miles away) Cornwall Furnace Memorial Park (ca. 8.3 miles away) Cherokee County Veterans Memorial (ca. 8.3 miles away). Tryck för en lista och karta över alla markörer i Cedar Bluff.


John B. Hood - HISTORIA

Det finns mer än 2200 konfedererade veteraner och deras makar begravda på Texas State Cemetery. Att undersöka en förfader som kämpade för konfederationen kan vara en tråkig och svår strävan. Belöningarna kan dock vara uppfriskande och upplysande när historien är utvecklad och avslutad för framtida generationer att njuta och vara stolta.

Det är målet för Texas State Cemetery Confederate Research Project att kunna berätta historien om varje konfedererad veteran och deras make för släktforskning. Varje individ begravd på kyrkogården har en individuell webbsida som innehåller namn, födelsedatum, dödsdatum, begravningsdatum, kort biografisk skiss, individuellt fotografi och gravstenfotografi. Därför är det vårt mål att kunna samla in så mycket information som möjligt om varje individ. Många av dessa män och kvinnor har inga register och kyrkogårdsforskare tvingas förlita sig på familjemedlemmar för att hjälpa till att fylla luckorna eller ge ett fotografi av individen. Om du har information om en person begravd på kyrkogården, vänligen kontakta kyrkogårdsforskningsavdelningen på (512) 463-0605.

FORSKA EN KONFERDÖRSVETERAN

Det finns flera steg i att söka efter en konfedererad veteran som kan vara dyr och tidskrävande.

MUNTLIG HISTORIA

Den inledande sökningen efter en förbund börjar med en muntlig historia som har gått vidare från generation till generation. Förutom att ge en utgångspunkt kommer en muntlig historia att tillhandahålla grundläggande forskningsinformation som är viktig när man försöker hitta information om en förbund. Det kommer att göra forskningsinsatser mer praktiska och mindre frustrerande om man kan börja med ett namn, rang och enhet som de kämpade med under inbördeskriget.

MILITÄRA RECORDS

När bakgrundsinformation har fastställts. Nästa steg är att kontakta National Archives i Washington D.C. för att få en kopia av Veterans Compiled Military Service Record (CMSR). CMSR kommer att ge relevant information som när och var veteranen värvade och mönstrade till tjänst. Dessutom kommer CMSR att förse forskaren med datum han var närvarande eller frånvarande för tjänst, födelseort, lönesedlar och sjukhus- och fängelsejournaler om de var tillgängliga.

CMSR: s kommer inte att indikera striderna som utkämpas, men "händelseregistret" kommer att ge dagliga redogörelser för ett företags vistelseort och aktiviteter. Med hjälp av CMSR kommer en forskare att kunna jämföra de datum deras förfader var närvarande med sitt företag med var företaget befann sig en viss dag. Genom att jämföra en konfedererad CMSR med "händelseförteckningen" kommer en forskare att kunna bestämma krigsupplevelsen för just den soldaten.

PENSIONSRECORDER

Militära register kommer endast att ge information som är relaterad till militärtjänst. Andra källor måste ses över för att få ett större perspektiv på en veterans hela liv. Pensionsansökningarna kan erhållas från respektive statliga förvar. Ansökningarna kommer att variera beroende på tillstånd, men de kommer att ge grundläggande biografisk information. Texas -ansökan kommer att förse en forskare med namn, födelsedatum, födelseort, yrke, enhet, datum då de trädde i tjänst och svurna bekräftelser som svär tjänst i konfederationen.

Efter inbördeskriget fattade förbundsregeringen ett beslut att inte ge pension för soldater som kämpade i konfederationen. Förbundsregeringen överlämnade beslutet till södra staterna att förse konfedererade veteraner med pension. Texas antog konfedererade pensionslagen 1899. Lagen förklarade att en konfedererad soldat eller sjöman var berättigad om de var inhemska texaner eller bosatta i Texas före 1880, och som antingen var över sextio och vars funktionshinder var ett direkt resultat av tjänst under inbördeskriget. Förutom soldater och sjömän var änkor berättigade till pension om de aldrig gifte om sig och var bosatta i Texas sedan 1880. Pensionslagen ändrades senare för att underlätta många av dessa restriktioner, särskilt änkor.

ÖVRIGA FORSKNINGSMATERIAL

de viktigaste källorna är militärjournalerna och pensionsansökningarna. Men det är inte de enda källorna som hjälper dig i din sökning. de flesta statliga arkiv kommer att tillhandahålla rullningar av enheter från sina särskilda statliga och statliga folkräkningar. dessa register kommer att kunna verifiera om en person är din förbundsveteran eller inte. andra källor kommer att vara dödsintyg och dödsintyg för den personen, återigen kommer dessa att ge värdefull biografisk information samt namn på efterlevande familjemedlemmar.

BÖCKER

Inbördeskriget är ett av de mest populära ämnena som studerats i amerikansk historia. Därför har otaliga böcker publicerats om i stort sett alla ämnen som rör inbördeskriget. Den kanske viktigaste uppsättningen böcker som finns för en forskare är Officiella register över upprorskriget. OR (som de kallas) innehåller 128 volymer av officiella order, kartlägger korrespondens mellan officerare och generaler och andra olika poster som kom ut ur inbördeskriget. Förutom OR finns det officiella register från unionen och förbundna flottor i upprorskriget, som innehåller 31 volymer av samma information som OR.

Any search for a Confederate veteran will be time consuming and difficult, but in the end will be a rewarding experience.

TEXAS INVOLVEMENT IN THE CIVIL WAR

The Civil War was arguably one of the worst events in the history of the United States. It pitted the northern industrial states versus the southern agrarian states over the issue of states rights with the underlying issue, of course, being whether or not a new state or territory had the right to determine if it would be free or slave. The result was the Civil War, which would end up being the most costly American war in history. There were more casualties during the Civil War than in all the wars the country has fought combined.

The majority of the fighting took place east of the Mississippi River however, Texas played a vital role in the Confederate cause. Texas lay on the far western side of the Confederacy bordering Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico, thus geographically making it a strategic stronghold for the South. In addition to the geographic importance, Texas was the largest cotton-producer in the South, thus enabling it to trade with Mexico for military supplies and other necessities.

More than 75,000 Texans fought for the Confederacy, making major contributions throughout the War effort. The majority of the men would stay in Texas to defend the frontier against Indian and Union attacks, but many Texans would fight and even play prominent roles in many battles like Shiloh, Antietam, Gettysburg, and the ill-fated Atlanta Campaign. Finally, after much hardship on both the North and the South, Robert E. Lee and Joseph E. Johnson surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, and at Smithfield, North Carolina, in April 1865 respectively. However, the news was slow to reach Texas and the last battle of the Civil War was fought May 13, 1865 at Palmito Ranch near Brownsville with the determined Confederate forces defeating the Union. On May 26, 1865, General E. Kirby Smith surrendered the Trans-Mississippi Department.

CONFEDERATES AT THE TEXAS STATE CEMETERY

Following the Civil War, tensions between the North and the South were still high among politicians, soldiers, and citizens alike. The Federal Government provided Union soldiers with a pension, but offered no assistance to Confederate soldiers. As a result, the John B. Hood Camp of Confederate Veterans, with the help of the Albert Sidney Johnston Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, raised private funds to purchase land and erect buildings to be used as a convalescent home for many of the Confederate soldiers who were disabled, indigent, and unable to provide for themselves. In 1891, the responsibility of the Confederate Men s home was transferred from the John B. Hood Camp of Confederate Veterans and the United Daughters of the Confederacy to the State of Texas.

Upon receiving the Confederate Men s Home the State set forth guidelines for admittance into the Home. To be eligible, the Confederate veteran had to be disabled and indigent, a citizen of Texas on January 1, 1891, and to have served the cause of the South in an honorable manner. The application for admittance had to prove honorable service with a sworn affidavit of two "reputable persons." In addition, a physician s certificate had to show the nature of the disability, that the Confederate was unable to provide for himself, and that the applicant was not suffering from any contagious diseases.

Throughout the years, more than 2,000 Confederates lived at the Home, with the last veteran passing away in 1954 at 108. The Confederate Men s Home was expanded to include veterans from the Spanish-American War and World War I in 1939. Since there were no longer any Confederates alive, the other war veterans were transferred to the Kerrville State Hospital in 1963 to make room for University of Texas student housing.

The United Daughters of the Confederacy opened the Confederate Women s Home in December 1907, to provide care for spouses and widows of Confederate veterans and for women who played a role in the Confederacy. The State took control of the Women s home in 1911 and operated it until 1964. The remaining residents of the Home were moved to other health care facilities or family homes and the Women s Home was closed so that nurses from the Austin State Hospital could live at the facilities.

The majority of the individuals who stayed at the Men s Home were indigent farmers who were so badly injured during the war they were unable to care for themselves as they got older. The Home was a place for these men and women to live out the rest of their lives in peace. The Confederate Men s and Women s Homes were not limited to farmers, as men and women from all occupations and educational backgrounds comprised these two sanctuaries.

General Albert Sidney Johnston, the highest-ranking Confederate general, was killed on April 6, 1862, at the battle of Shiloh. In 1867, Johnston s body was moved from New Orleans, Louisiana, to his final resting-place at the Texas State Cemetery. Johnston joined Confederate generals August Buchel, William R. Scurry, and Benjamin McCulloch at the State Cemetery. Later, Generals Xavier B. Debray, William P. Hardeman, John Wharton, A. W. Terrell, and Adam R. Johnson joined the other honored generals who were buried in the Cemetery. As a result of the popularity of Johnston and the other generals, it was recognized that common Confederate soldiers would be allowed burial in the Cemetery upon their death. Although there was never any formal decree stating eligibility status for the Confederates until the 1950s, the Cemetery became the most appropriate final resting-place for these fallen southern heroes who fought during the Civil War.


Time Periods:

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.

Thomas W. Cutrer, &ldquoHood, John Bell,&rdquo Handbook of Texas Online, accessed June 26, 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/hood-john-bell.

Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

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About Lieut. General John Bell Hood (CSA)

John Bell Hood (June 1 or June 29, 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. Hood had a reputation for bravery and aggressiveness that sometimes bordered on recklessness. Arguably one of the best brigade and division commanders in the Confederate States Army, Hood became increasingly ineffective as he was promoted to lead larger, independent commands late in the war, and his career was marred by his decisive defeats leading an army in the Atlanta Campaign and the Franklin-Nashville Campaign.

Hood's education at the United States Military Academy led to a career as a junior officer in both the infantry and cavalry of the antebellum U.S. Army in California and Texas. At the start of the Civil War, he offered his services to his adopted state of Texas. He achieved his reputation for aggressive leadership as a brigade commander in the army of Robert E. Lee during the Seven Days Battles in 1862, after which he was promoted to division command. He led a division under James Longstreet in the campaigns of 1862�. At the Battle of Gettysburg, he was severely wounded, rendering his left arm useless for the rest of his life. Transferred with many of Longstreet's troops to the Western Theater, Hood led a massive assault into a gap in the Union line at the Battle of Chickamauga, but was wounded again, requiring the amputation of his right leg.

Hood returned to field service during the Atlanta Campaign of 1864, and at the age of 33 promoted to temporary full general and command of the Army of Tennessee at the outskirts of Atlanta. There, he dissipated his army in a series of bold, but fruitless assaults, and was compelled to evacuate the besieged city. Leading his men through Alabama and into Tennessee, he severely damaged his army by ordering a massive frontal assault at the Battle of Franklin and was decisively defeated at the Battle of Nashville, after which he was relieved of command.

After the war, Hood moved to Louisiana and worked as a cotton broker and in the insurance business. His business was ruined by a yellow fever epidemic in New Orleans during the winter of 1878� and he succumbed to the disease himself, dying just days after his wife and oldest child, leaving ten destitute orphans.

Hood was born in Owingsville, Kentucky, the son of John W. Hood, a doctor, and Theodosia French Hood. He was a cousin of future Confederate general G. W. Smith and the nephew of U.S. Representative Richard French. French obtained an appointment for Hood at the United States Military Academy, despite his father's reluctance to support a military career for his son. Hood graduated in 1853, ranked 44th in a class of 52 that originally numbered 96, after a near-expulsion in his final year for excessive demerits (196 of a permissible 200). At West Point and in later Army years, he was known to friends as "Sam". His classmates included James B. McPherson and John M. Schofield he received instruction in artillery from George H. Thomas. These three men became Union Army generals who would oppose Hood in battle. The superintendent in 1852� was Col. Robert E. Lee, who would become Hood's commanding general in the Eastern Theater. Notwithstanding his modest record at the Academy, in 1860 Hood was appointed chief instructor of cavalry at West Point, a position that he declined, citing his desire to remain with his active field regiment and to retain all of his options in light of the impending war.

Hood was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the 4th U.S. Infantry, served in California, and later transferred to the 2nd U.S. Cavalry in Texas, where he was commanded by Col. Albert Sidney Johnston and Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee. While commanding a reconnaissance patrol from Fort Mason on July 20, 1857, Hood sustained one of the many wounds that marked his lifetime in military service𠅊n arrow through his left hand during action against the Comanches at Devil's River, Texas.

Brigade and division command

Hood resigned from the United States Army immediately after Fort Sumter and, dissatisfied with the neutrality of his native Kentucky, decided to serve his adopted state of Texas. He joined the Confederate army as a cavalry captain, but by September 30, 1861, was promoted to be colonel of the 4th Texas Infantry.[12]

Hood became the brigade commander of the unit that was henceforth known as Hood's Texas Brigade on February 20, 1862, part of the Confederate Army of the Potomac, and was promoted to brigadier general on March 3, 1862. Leading the Texas brigade as part of the Army of Northern Virginia in the Peninsula Campaign, he established his reputation as an aggressive commander, eager to lead his troops personally into battle. At the Battle of Eltham's Landing, his men were instrumental in nullifying an amphibious landing by a Union division. When commanding general Joseph E. Johnston reflected upon the success Hood's men enjoyed in executing his order "to feel the enemy gently and fall back," he humorously asked, "What would your Texans have done, sir, if I had ordered them to charge and drive back the enemy?" Hood replied, "I suppose, General, they would have driven them into the river, and tried to swim out and capture the gunboats."

At the Battle of Gaines' Mill on June 27, Hood distinguished himself by leading his brigade in a charge that broke the Union line, which was the most successful Confederate performance in the Seven Days Battles. While Hood escaped the battle without an injury, every other field officer in his brigade was killed or wounded.

Because of his success on the Peninsula, Hood was given command of a division in Maj. Gen. James Longstreet's First Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia. He led the division in the Northern Virginia Campaign and added to his reputation as the premier leader of shock troops during Longstreet's massive assault on John Pope's left flank at the Second Battle of Bull Run, which nearly destroyed the Union army.

In the pursuit of Union forces, Hood was involved in a dispute over captured ambulances with a superior officer. Longstreet had Hood arrested and ordered him to leave the army, but Gen. Lee intervened and retained him in service. During the Maryland Campaign, just before the Battle of South Mountain, Hood was in the rear, still in virtual arrest. His Texas troops shouted to General Lee, "Give us Hood!" Lee restored Hood to command, despite Hood's refusal to apologize for his conduct.[16]

It could scarcely be said that any [of the officers in Longstreet's corps] . save one had by this date displayed qualities that would dispose anyone to expect a career of eminence. The exception was Hood. . Anyone who had followed the operations of the Army after Gaines' Mill would have said that of all the officers under Longstreet, the most likely to be a great soldier was Hood.

During the Battle of Antietam, Hood's division came to the relief of Stonewall Jackson's corps on the Confederate left flank, turning back an assault by the Union I Corps in the West Woods, suffering massive casualties in the defense. In the evening after the battle, Gen. Lee asked Hood where his division was. He responded, "They are lying on the field where you sent them. My division has been almost wiped out." Jackson was impressed with Hood's performance and recommended his promotion to major general, which occurred effective October 10, 1862.

In the Battle of Fredericksburg in December, Hood's division saw little action, placed in the center, between Longstreet's lines on Marye's Heights, and Jackson's lines. And in the spring of 1863, he missed the great victory of the Battle of Chancellorsville because most of Longstreet's First Corps was on detached duty in Suffolk, Virginia, involving Longstreet himself and Hood's and George Pickett's divisions.

At the Battle of Gettysburg, Longstreet's Corps arrived late on the first day, July 1, 1863. General Lee planned an assault for the second day that would feature Longstreet's Corps attacking northeast up the Emmitsburg Road into the Union left flank. Hood was dissatisfied with his assignment in the assault because it would face difficult terrain in the boulder-strewn area known as the Devil's Den. He requested permission from Longstreet to move around the left flank of the Union army, beyond the mountain known as [Big] Round Top, to strike the Union in their rear area. Longstreet refused permission, citing Lee's orders, despite repeated protests from Hood. Yielding to the inevitable, Hood's division stepped off around 4 p.m. on July 2, but a variety of factors caused it to veer to the east, away from its intended direction, where it would eventually meet with Union forces at Little Round Top. Just as the attack started, however, Hood was the victim of an artillery shell exploding overhead, severely damaging his left arm, which incapacitated him. (Although the arm was not amputated, he was unable to make use of it for the rest of his life.) His ranking brigade commander, Brig. Gen. Evander M. Law, assumed command of the division, but confusion as to orders and command status dissipated the direction and strength of the Confederate attack, significantly affecting the outcome of the battle.

Hood recuperated in Richmond, Virginia, where he made a social impression on the ladies of the Confederacy. In August 1863, famous diarist Mary Chesnut wrote of Hood:

When Hood came with his sad Quixote face, the face of an old Crusader, who believed in his cause, his cross, and his crown, we were not prepared for such a man as a beau-ideal of the wild Texans. He is tall, thin, and shy has blue eyes and light hair a tawny beard, and a vast amount of it, covering the lower part of his face, the whole appearance that of awkward strength. Some one said that his great reserve of manner he carried only into the society of ladies. Major [Charles S.] Venable added that he had often heard of the light of battle shining in a man's eyes. He had seen it once — when he carried to Hood orders from Lee, and found in the hottest of the fight that the man was transfigured. The fierce light of Hood's eyes I can never forget.

As he recuperated, Hood began a campaign to win the heart of the young, prominent South Carolina socialite, Sally Buchanan Preston, known as "Buck" to her friends, whom he had first met while traveling through Richmond in March 1863. Hood later confessed that the flirtatious Southern belle had caused him to "surrender at first sight." As he prepared to return to duty in September, Hood proposed marriage to Buck, but received only a noncommittal response.

Meanwhile, in the Western Theater, the Confederate army under General Braxton Bragg was faring poorly. Lee dispatched two divisions of Longstreet's Corps to Tennessee, and Hood was able to rejoin his men on September 18. At the Battle of Chickamauga, Hood led Longstreet's assault that exploited a gap in the Federal line, which led to the defeat of Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans's Union Army of the Cumberland. However, Hood was once again wounded severely, and his right leg was amputated four inches (100 mm) below the hip. Hood's condition was so grave that the surgeon sent the severed leg along with him in the ambulance, assuming that they would be buried together. Because of Hood's bravery at Chickamauga, Longstreet recommended that he be promoted to lieutenant general as of that date, September 20, 1863 the confirmation by the Confederate Senate occurred on February 11, 1864, as Hood was preparing to return to duty.

During Hood's second recuperation in Richmond that fall, he befriended Confederate President Jefferson Davis, who would subsequently promote him to a more important role. He also resumed his courtship of Buck Preston, who, despite giving him some ambiguously positive signals, dashed his hopes on Christmas Eve. Hood confided to Mary Chesnut that the courtship, "was the hardest battle he had ever fought in his life." In February Hood proposed again to Buck and this time demanded a specific response, which was a reluctant, embarrassed agreement. However, the Preston family did not approve of Hood, who left for the field unmarried.

Atlanta Campaign and the Army of Tennessee

In the spring of 1864, the Confederate Army of Tennessee, under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, was engaged in a campaign of maneuver against William T. Sherman, who was driving from Chattanooga toward Atlanta. Hood had accepted the position as a corps commander offered by President Davis, a somewhat controversial appointment because of the Texan's relative youth and inexperience, plus his physical disabilities. Despite his two damaged limbs, Hood performed well in the field, riding as much as 20 miles a day without apparent difficulty, strapped to his horse with his artificial leg hanging stiffly, and an orderly following closely behind with crutches. The leg, made of cork, was donated (along with a couple of spares) by members of his Texas Brigade, who had collected $3,100 in a single day for that purpose it had been imported from Europe through the Union blockade.

During the Atlanta Campaign, Hood urged the normally cautious Johnston to act aggressively, but Johnston usually reacted to flanking maneuvers by Sherman with timely withdrawals, rather similar to his strategy in the Peninsula Campaign. One attempt by Johnston to act decisively in the offensive, during the Battle of Adairsville, ironically was foiled by Hood, who had been ordered to attack the flank of one column of Sherman's army, but instead pulled back and entrenched when confronted by the unexpected arrival of a small detachment of that column.

The Army of Tennessee continued withdrawing until it had crossed the last major water barrier before Atlanta, the Chattahoochee River. During this time, Hood had been sending the government in Richmond letters very critical of Johnston's conduct, bypassing official communication channels. The issue came to a head when Gen. Braxton Bragg was ordered by President Davis to travel to Atlanta to personally interview Johnston. After meeting with Johnston, he interviewed Hood and another subordinate, Joseph Wheeler, who told him that they had repeatedly urged Johnston to attack. Hood presented a letter that branded Johnston as being both ineffective and weak-willed. He told Bragg, "I have, General, so often urged that we should force the enemy to give us battle as to almost be regarded reckless by the officers high in rank in this army [meaning Johnston and senior corps commander William J. Hardee], since their views have been so directly opposite." Johnston's biographer, Craig L. Symonds, judges that Hood's letter "stepped over the line from unprofessional to outright subversive." Steven E. Woodworth wrote that Hood was "letting his ambition get the better of his honesty" because "the truth was that Hood, more often than Hardee, had counseled Johnston to retreat."

On July 17, 1864, Jefferson Davis relieved Johnston. He considered replacing him with the more senior Hardee, but Bragg strongly recommended Hood. Bragg had not only been impressed by his interview with Hood, but he retained lingering resentments against Hardee from bitter disagreements in previous campaigns. Hood was promoted to the temporary rank of full general on July 18, and given command of the army just outside the gates of Atlanta. (Hood's temporary appointment as a full general was never confirmed by the Senate. His commission as a lieutenant general resumed on January 23, 1865.) At 33, Hood was the youngest man on either side to be given command of an army. Robert E. Lee gave an ambiguous reply to Davis's request for his opinion about the promotion, calling Hood "a bold fighter, very industrious on the battlefield, careless off," but he could not say whether Hood possessed all of the qualities necessary to command an army in the field.

Hood conducted the remainder of the Atlanta Campaign with the strong aggressive actions for which he had become famous. He launched four major attacks that summer in an attempt to break Sherman's siege of Atlanta, starting almost immediately with an attack along Peachtree Creek. All of the offensives failed, with significant Confederate casualties. Finally, on September 2, 1864, Hood evacuated the city of Atlanta, burning as many military supplies and installations as possible.

As Sherman regrouped in Atlanta, preparing for his March to the Sea, Hood and Jefferson Davis met to devise a strategy to defeat him. Their plan was to attack Sherman's lines of communications between Chattanooga and Atlanta, and to move north through Alabama and into central Tennessee, assuming that Sherman would be threatened and follow. Hood's ambitious hope was that he could maneuver Sherman into a decisive battle, defeat him, recruit additional forces in Tennessee and Kentucky, and pass through the Cumberland Gap to come to the aid of Robert E. Lee, who was besieged at Petersburg. Sherman did not cooperate, however. Instead of pursuing Hood with his army, he sent Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas to take control of the Union forces in Tennessee and coordinate the defense against Hood, while the bulk of Sherman's forces prepared to march toward Savannah.

During their conference, Davis expressed his disappointment in Hood's performance during the Atlanta Campaign, losing tens of thousands of men in ill-advised frontal assaults for no significant gains, and implied that he was considering replacing Hood in command of the army. After the president's departure for Montgomery, Alabama, he telegraphed Hood that he had decided to retain him in command and, acceding to Hood's request, transferred Hardee out of the Army of Tennessee. He also established a new theater commander to supervise Hood and the department of Lt. Gen. Richard Taylor, although the officer selected for the assignment, Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, was not expected to exert any real operational control of the armies in the field.

Hood's Tennessee Campaign lasted from September to December 1864, comprising seven battles and hundreds of miles of marching. He attempted to trap a large part of the Union Army of the Ohio under Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield at Spring Hill, Tennessee, before it could link up with Thomas in Nashville, but command failures and misunderstandings allowed Schofield's men to safely pass by Hood's army in the night. The next day at the Battle of Franklin, Hood sent his men across nearly two miles of open ground without the support of artillery in a last gasp effort to destroy Schofield's forces before they could withdraw across the Harpeth River and reach the safety of Nashville, which was only a night's march from Franklin. His troops were unsuccessful in their attempt to breach the Union breastworks, suffering severe casualties in an assault that is sometimes called the "Pickett's Charge of the West". Hood's exhausted army was unable to interfere as the Union force withdrew into Nashville. He later wrote that "Never did troops fight more gallantly" than at Franklin. Some popular histories assert that Hood acted rashly in a fit of rage, resentful that the Federal army had slipped past his troops the night before at Spring Hill and that he wanted to discipline his army by ordering them to assault against strong odds. Recent scholarship by Eric Jacobson discounts this as unlikely, as it was not only militarily foolish, but Hood was observed to be determined, not angry, by the time he arrived in Franklin.

Unwilling to abandon his original plan, Hood stumbled toward the heavily fortified capital of Tennessee, and laid siege with inferior forces, which endured the beginning of a severe winter. Two weeks later, George Thomas attacked and defeated Hood at the Battle of Nashville. During the battle and the subsequent relentless pursuit to the south, the Army of Tennessee ceased to be an effective fighting force. Hood and the remnants of the army retreated as far as Tupelo, Mississippi. Some of the survivors eventually joined Joseph E. Johnston the Carolinas Campaign against Sherman. P.G.T. Beauregard sought permission to replace Hood with Lt. Gen. Richard Taylor and the change of command occurred January 23, 1865. In a speech to his men, Hood expressed the hope that they would give their support to Taylor and avenge their comrades "whose bones lay bleaching upon the fields of Middle Tennessee." He returned to Richmond on February 8.

In March 1865, Hood requested assignment to the Trans-Mississippi Theater to report on the situation there and to assess the possibility of moving troops across the Mississippi River to reinforce the East. He met with Richard Taylor in Mississippi in late April and agreed with Taylor's proposal that his force should surrender. He departed to take this recommendation to the commanders remaining in the field, but before he arrived in Texas, General Edmund Kirby Smith surrendered his forces, and Hood surrendered himself in Natchez, Mississippi, where he was paroled on May 31, 1865.

After the war, Hood moved to Louisiana and became a cotton broker and worked as a President of the Life Association of America, an insurance business. In 1868, he married New Orleans native Anna Marie Hennen, with whom he would father eleven children over ten years, including three pairs of twins. He also served the community in numerous philanthropic endeavors, as he assisted in fund raising for orphans, widows, and wounded soldiers. During the postwar period he wrote a memoir, Advance and Retreat: Personal Experiences in the United States and Confederate States Armies, which served to justify his actions, particularly in response to what he considered misleading or false accusations made by Joseph E. Johnston, and to unfavorable portrayals in Sherman's memoirs. His insurance business was ruined by a yellow fever epidemic in New Orleans during the winter of 1878� and he succumbed to the disease himself, dying just days after his wife and oldest child, leaving ten destitute orphans, who were adopted by families in Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, Kentucky, and New York.

John Bell Hood is buried in the Hennen family tomb at Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans. He is memorialized by Hood County, Texas, and the U.S. Army installation, Fort Hood, Texas.

Stephen Vincent Benét's poem Army of Northern Virginia included a poignant passage about Hood:

Yellow-haired Hood with his wounds and his empty sleeve, Leading his Texans, a Viking shape of a man, With the thrust and lack of craft of a berserk sword, All lion, none of the fox. When he supersedes Joe Johnston, he is lost, and his army with him, But he could lead forlorn hopes with the ghost of Ney. His bigboned Texans follow him into the mist. Who follows them?

In Bell I. Wiley's 1943 book, The Life of Johnny Reb, the Common Soldier of the Confederacy, he recounts that after the defeats in the Franklin-Nashville Campaign, Hood's troops sang with wry humor a verse about him as part of the song The Yellow Rose of Texas.

My feet are torn and bloody, My heart is full of woe, I'm going back to Georgia To find my uncle Joe [Johnston]. You may talk about your Beauregard, You may sing of Bobby Lee, But the gallant Hood of Texas He played hell in Tennessee.

In the movies Gods and Generals and Gettysburg, Hood was portrayed by actor Patrick Gorman.

The basic premise of the 1988 alternate history novel Gray Victory by Robert Skimin is that Hood's decision to leave the defenses of Atlanta and make a disastrous attack upon the Union forces had cost the South its last chance to win the war.

In the 2008 film In the Electric Mist, actor Levon Helm portrays General John Bell Hood, as a ghost who appears to detective Dave Robicheaux (played by Tommy Lee Jones).

The 2009 novel A Separate Country, by Robert Hicks, focuses on Hood's life after the Civil War.

Birth: Jun. 29, 1831 Owingsville Bath County Kentucky, USA Death: Aug. 30, 1879 New Orleans Orleans Parish Louisiana, USA

Civil War Confederate Lieutenant General. He was born John Bell Hood on June 29, 1831, the son of a rural doctor in Owingsville, Kentucky. He was raised in the bluegrass region of central Kentucky near the town of Mt. Sterling. Against the wishes of his father, who had urged him to pursue a medical career, John Bell obtained an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West point in 1849 and graduated 44th out of 52 in the class of 1853. After receiving his commission as a brevet second lieutenant in the United States Army, Hood served in the cavalry in California and Texas. After the outbreak of the Civil War, Hood resigned his commission and enlisted in the Confederate Army, receiving a commission as a lieutenant. Hood rose rapidly, and on March 7, 1862 he was promoted to Brigadier General in command of the renowned Texas Brigade. The Texas Brigade's heroics saved the Confederate left flank at Antietam in September 1862, after which Hood would be promoted to Major General. Hood was severely wounded at Gettysburg, losing use of his left arm. After recovering, Hood was assigned to the Army of Tennessee. On September 18, 1863, he rejoined his division for the Battle of Chickamauga. Hood's forces broke through the Federal battle line, which led to the rout of the Yankees. During the battle Hood received wounds that resulted in the amputation of his right leg. In September, 1863 Hood was recommended for promotion to lieutenant general for his decisive role in the Confederate victory at Chickamauga. Hood developed a close personal relationship with fellow Kentuckian President Jefferson Davis while recovering from his Chickamauga wound in Richmond during the winter of 1863-1864. Hood was offered a position as a corps commander under Johnston. On February 4, 1864 Hood arrived in Dalton, Georgia and assumed a corps command in the Army of Tennessee under Johnston. After a series of defensive battles in which Sherman prevailed, Union forces continued to march toward Atlanta, and the Confederate government and high command grew more frustrated and alarmed. President Davis ultimately determined that Hood should replace Johnston as commander of the Army of Tennessee. Hood wasted no time in launching the first of four major offensives designed to break Sherman's siege of Atlanta. However, the disjointed attacks by separate Confederate corps' were ineffective and resulted in a decisive Union victory. Hoping to save his army, Hood evacuated Atlanta on September 2, 1864. Hood would continue to harass Sherman's supply and communications lines, but could do nothing to stop the infamous “march to the sea.” Hood then launched his ill-fated invasion of Tennessee, suffering decisive defeats at Franklin on Nov. 30 and at Nashville on Dec. 16. Retreating with the shattered remnants of the Army of Tennessee into northern Mississippi, Hood resigned his command on January 23, 1865. During the waning days of the Confederacy, Hood was ordered by Jefferson Davis to travel to Texas and attempt to raise an army. However, after learning of Lee’s surrender and the capture of Davis, Hood surrendered to Federal authorities in Natchez, Mississippi on May 31, 1865. After the war Hood prospered for a time in the cotton brokerage and insurance businesses in New Orleans. He married a local woman and fathered eleven children over the next 10 years, including three sets of twins. Hood’s modest fortune was wiped out during the winter of 1878-1879 by a yellow fever epidemic that closed the New Orleans Cotton Exchange and bankrupted the local insurance industry. Later that year, on August 30, 1879, John Bell Hood died of yellow fever within days of his wife and oldest child. His ten orphaned children, all under the age of ten, were left destitute. They would ultimately be adopted by seven different families in Louisiana, New York, Mississippi, Georgia and Kentucky. (bio by: Edward Parsons)

Burial: Metairie Cemetery New Orleans Orleans Parish Louisiana, USA GPS (lat/lon): 29.98244, -90.12022

Maintained by: Find A Grave Record added: Feb 01, 1999 Find A Grave Memorial# 4418


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In the final days of the war, Hood was dispatched to Texas by Davis with the goal of raising a new army. Learning of Davis' capture and the surrender of Texas, Hood surrendered to Union forces at Natchez, MS on May 31. After the war, Hood settled in New Orleans where he worked in insurance and as a cotton broker.

Marrying, he fathered eleven children before his death from yellow fever on August 30, 1879. A gifted brigade and division commander, Hood's performance dropped as he was promoted to higher commands. Though renowned for his early successes and ferocious attacks, his failures around Atlanta and in Tennessee permanently damaged his reputation as a commander.


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